Search This Blog

Saturday, 30 August 2014

Want to build muscle? It’s not what you eat, but when


Studying the human body isn’t rocket science – in some cases, it’s much harder.
“I tell my grad students that we can put a man on the moon, but we still can’t come to a consensus on how much protein to give him here on earth,” says Dr. Rajavel Elango, a researcher at the University of British Columbia’s School of Population and Public Health.
Elango and his colleagues are using a new measurement technique to rewrite assumptions about how much protein you need at different stages of life. But just getting the right amount isn’t enough: There’s a limit to how much protein your body can use at once, so to maximize muscle-building you need to spread your intake throughout the day – and for most Canadians, that means ramping up the protein content at breakfast and lunch.
Your muscles are constantly being broken down and rebuilt at a rate of about 1 to 2 per cent per day, which means that you get a completely new set of muscles every two or three months. The protein you eat provides the basic building blocks – amino acids – needed to keep up with this constant rebuilding.
To figure out how much you need, scientists have traditionally tracked protein’s nitrogen content as it’s ingested and excreted by volunteers – a cumbersome process prone to errors, Elango says.
Instead, he and colleagues in Toronto, Edmonton and elsewhere have developed an alternate method that involves tagging amino acids with a special carbon isotope tracer whose progress through the body can be precisely monitored. Their results suggest that current protein guidelines for healthy adults are underestimated by about 30 per cent.
Since the new test is faster and less invasive than the old one, it can also be used to check requirements in vulnerable populations like children, pregnant women and older adults. In each of these examples, the new results suggest that current guidelines are too low, by as much as 70 per cent in the case of children between the ages of 6 and 10.
In Canada, the vast majority of people easily consume enough protein during the day – the problem is how it’s distributed. Whenever you eat protein, your body responds by firing up its anabolic (muscle-building) processes. The more protein you eat, the more muscle protein you synthesize – up to a point. Research by McMaster University’s Dr. Stuart Phillips and others has found that if you eat more than 20 to 30 grams of protein at a time, you don’t get any further anabolic boost. Any extra protein is simply burned for energy; unlike carbohydrate or fat, you can’t save it for later.
Unfortunately, typical Canadian dietary patterns involve food choices and meal sizes that provide relatively small doses of 10 to 15 grams of protein at breakfast and lunch, and then a mammoth 65-gram wallop of protein at dinner. The daily total of 90 grams is great, but since more than half of the dinner protein goes to waste, the usable amount of protein is actually below the optimal amount for muscle maintenance.
“You can overconsume protein to your heart’s content, but unless you distribute it appropriately, you can still fall well below the body’s needs,” says Dr. Douglas Paddon-Jones, a professor of nutrition and metabolism at the University of Texas. Instead, Paddon-Jones recommends distributing protein more equally throughout the day, aiming for three meals each with 30 grams of protein – by including eggs and high-protein dairy options like Greek yogurt at breakfast, for example.
Athletes who are trying to build muscle (or simply help their muscles recover from arduous workouts) can push that approach even further. Phillips and his colleagues recently tested three different ways of taking in 80 grams of protein in one day: eight equally spaced doses of 10 grams; four doses of 20 grams; or two doses of 40 grams. The intermediate option produced the greatest overall muscle protein boost, so Phillips suggests that athletes should aim for four daily meals each with at least 20 grams of protein. And there’s one final option to boost protein synthesis at the end of the day.
“When you couldn’t sleep, what did your grandmother tell you?” Phillips asks. “Drink a warm glass of milk.”
Indeed, a study published last year by researchers in the Netherlands showed that a dose of protein immediately before bed kept the body in an anabolic state overnight, boosting overall protein synthesis rates by 22 per cent.
Of course, you don’t build muscle just by eating. The anabolic effects of eating protein are doubled if combined with exercise, which is one of the reasons athletes are encouraged to refuel immediately after working out. But if you follow the advice to spread out your protein intake, then you don’t need to worry about the precise timing, according to Paddon-Jones.
“You don’t want to be the tea-and-toast breakfast eater who exercises and then doesn’t get any protein until the afternoon,” he says. “But if you distribute protein throughout the day, it doesn’t really matter when you exercise.”

Thursday, 28 August 2014

Where Do Gorillas Get Their Vitamin B12?

Posted by 

Termites: The Other, Other White Meat

Vitamin B12 is one of the two nutrients that are essential for human beings but aren’t available from a purely plant-based diet. The other is vitamin D, which isn’t truly a vitamin but is a hormone that your body can make for itself if you get some bright sunshine on your skin. Gorillas live in Africa, where there's no shortage of sunshine. The interesting question is where do they get their vitamin B12? Evidently, they get it from the insects and other creepy crawlies that they eat. Their favorites are termites--the other, other white meat.

Except for vitamin D and vitamin B12, plants provide all the essential nutrients that people need. Plants contain minerals, such as calcium and iron, which they have absorbed from the soil. Plants contain all of the other vitamins and essential amino acids, which they have made for their own purposes. Plants are also the original source of the essential fatty acids. However, plants don’t make vitamin B12, and neither do animals. All of the vitamin B12 in nature comes from bacteria. 

Some plant-eaters get their supply of vitamin B12 from the bacteria in their own digestive system, as long as they are eating something that contains the element cobalt. (Vitamin B12 contains cobalt). Cattle and sheep are particularly good at getting vitamin B12 from their own gut bacteria. They have a lot of bacterial fermentation going on in their stomachs, so the vitamin B12 is made before the food passes through the part of the intestine where the vitamin B12 gets absorbed. Such animals are called “foregut fermenters.” 

Other species, including rabbits and gorillas and human beings, are “hindgut fermenters.” Their gut bacteria make vitamin B12, but only after the food has passed through the part of the intestine where the vitamin B12 can get absorbed. Rabbits solve this problem by eating some of their own droppings. Wild mountain gorillas sometimes do the same thing, usually during periods of bad weather. Captive gorillas do it a lot more often, possibly because they are bored.

On the other hand, gorillas and human beings can eat foods that already contain ready-made vitamin B12. For gorillas, that means tasty, tasty termites, which get vitamin B12 from their own gut bacteria. Modern human beings who don't want to eat termites, or any other animal products, can get their vitamin B12 from a nice, clean, and very cheap supplement. As long as their gastrointestinal system is healthy, people can even take their vitamin B12 by mouth. Vitamin B12 shots are useful for people who have trouble absorbing vitamin B12 from their food, because of gastrointestinal disease.

Food Companies Have Cut Back on Calories, Study Says


How big a difference does cutting 78 calories out of an American’s daily diet make?

It may depend on who’s counting.

That is the average amount a day that a study by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation said was the result of a five-year reduction of calories (totaling 6.4 trillion) in sales of food and beverages by 16 major companies.

The tally was assessed through a foundation grant to University of North Carolina, and was part of a years-long effort by the nonprofit organization to reduce childhood obesity in the United States.

The companies involved, as varied as Bumble Bee Foods and Coca-Cola and PepsiCo, account for 36 percent of the calories in all packaged foods and beverages sold.

Dr. James S. Marks, senior vice president with responsibility for the foundation’s health group, said he was encouraged by the progress made beyond the companies’ original pledge to drop caloric contents in their products by 1 trillion calories by 2010. “Now we hope that others see the success these companies have had and make the same commitment.”

Food policy experts were less impressed. Companies have been under intense pressure by consumers who are shunning high-calorie, high-fat foods in search of healthier alternatives.

Nutritionists noted that the study may paint a rosier picture of calorie reduction because its starting point was 2007, when grocery store sales were strong, rather than in 2009 when the companies began planning their program and the recession had put a dent in such sales.

The analysis also does not account for meals Americans eat in restaurants, where they could be consuming more calories. Nor does it distinguish between a reduction in calories that is attributable to company efforts and those that consumers have simply made on their own.

“It’s great to see companies selling fewer calories and reformulating their products to reduce fat and sugar, but it’s hard to know how much is due to the proactive efforts of the industry rather than changes in Americans’ eating habits, ” said Margo Wootan, director of nutrition policy at the Center for Science in the Public Interest. “It’s not as if Coke and Pepsi are encouraging people to drink less soda — in fact, Coke and Pepsi are lobbying against state and local policies aimed at reducing consumption of soda.”

Nonetheless, Ms. Wootan said a reduction of 78 calories a day was significant, whoever is responsible. “The whole obesity epidemic can be explained by an extra 100 to 150 calories a day,” she said.

Sales of the processed foods that typically line the long rows in the center of grocery stores have been stagnant, and beverage companies have been scrambling as consumers abandon sugary carbonated drinks for water and diet varieties.

‘Fed Up’ Asks, Are All Calories Equal?

Americans have long been told that the cure for obesity is simple: Eat fewer calories and exercise more.
But a new documentary challenges that notion, making the case that Americans have been misled by the idea that we get fat simply because we consume more calories than we expend. The film explores what it sees as some of the more insidious corporate and political forces behind the rise of childhood obesity, and it examines whether increasing levels of sugar consumption have played an outsized role in the epidemic.
The film, called “Fed Up,” has as executive producers Katie Couric, the former anchor of “The CBS Evening News,” and Laurie David, who was also a producer of the global warming documentary “An Inconvenient Truth.” Ms. Couric, who narrates the film, said she came up with the idea after years of covering the obesity epidemic left her with more questions than answers.
“What struck me was that the more I reported on childhood obesity and the longer I was in this business, the worse the problem seemed to be getting,” Ms. Couric said in an interview. “I felt like we were never really giving people a handle on what was causing this and why the rates were skyrocketing the way they were.”
The film draws on commentary from obesity experts and nutrition scientists, and it tells the stories of several obese children around the country who struggle to lose weight despite strict dieting and in some cases hours of daily exercise. But at the heart of the film is a question that is widely debated among scientists: Are all calories equal?
Dr. David Ludwig, the director of the obesity program at Boston Children’s Hospital, argues in the film that they are not. In recent studies, Dr. Ludwig has shown that high-carbohydrate diets appear to slow metabolic rates compared to diets higher in fat and protein, so that people expend less energy even when consuming the same number of calories. Dr. Ludwig has found that unlike calories from so-called low glycemic foods (like beans, nuts and non-starchy vegetables), those from high glycemic foods (such as sugar, bread and potatoes) spike blood sugar and stimulate hunger and cravings, which can drive people to overeat.
While people can certainly lose weight in the short term by focusing on calories, Dr. Ludwig said, studies show that the majority of people on calorie-restricted diets eventually fail. “The common explanation is that people have difficulty resisting temptation,” he said. “But another possibility is that highly processed foods undermine our metabolism and overwhelm our behavior.”
At Harvard Medical School, Dr. Dariush Mozaffarian, an associate professor of medicine and epidemiology whose research was cited by experts in the film, said that the long-held idea that we get fat solely because we consume more calories than we expend is based on outdated science.
He has studied the effects that different foods have on weight gain and said that it is true that 100 calories of fat, protein and carbohydrates are the same in a thermodynamic sense, in that they release the same amount of energy when exposed to a Bunsen burner in a lab. But in a complex organism like a human being, he said, these foods influence satiety, metabolic rate, brain activity, blood sugar and the hormones that store fat in very different ways.
Studies also show that calories from different foods are not absorbed the same. When people eat high-fiber foods like nuts and some vegetables, for example, only about three-quarters of the calories they contain are absorbed. The rest are excreted from the body unused. So the calories listed on their labels are not what the body is actually getting.
“The implicit suggestion is that there are no bad calories, just bad people eating too much,” Dr. Mozaffarian said. “But the evidence is very clear that not all calories are created equal as far as weight gain and obesity. If you’re focusing on calories, you can easily be misguided.”
Some of the harshest criticism in the film is aimed at a recent food industry initiative – led by companies like Coca-Cola and PepsiCo – to remove calories from their products in an effort to address obesity.
“If somebody is drowning in a swimming pool, you could remove a few gallons of water from the pool, and that person will still likely drown,” Dr. Ludwig said. “Whether there is on average 1,000 calories in the food supply too many per person or 800 is really unlikely to make a meaningful difference. What would make a difference is improvement in the quality of the foods available.”
But Marianne Smith Edge of the International Food Information Council, an industry-financed group that published a review of “Fed Up,” said the film overstates data on how much sugar Americans are consuming and wrongly portrays sugar as a lone dietary villain, much as dietary fat was vilified in decades past. Just as research in the last few years has vindicated some fats and shown them to be beneficial, she said, the science on sugar is evolving as well.
“I think the focus on particular nutrients doesn’t tell you the true story,” she said. “It really is about overall calorie consumption and reduced physical activity.”
Ms. Smith Edge, who is a registered dietitian, cited a 2012 study by Y. Claire Wang of the Mailman School of Public Health at Columbia University, which showed that the average child must eliminate 64 calories a day in order for the childhood obesity rate to fall to 14.6 percent by 2020, a goal set by the federal government.
In an interview, Dr. Wang said that for the most part, “if we’re just talking about body weight and obesity, the evidence seems to point in the direction that calories are calories.”
Dr. Wang said that studies consistently show that sugary beverages, potato chips and other high-glycemic foods are indeed associated with weight gain. But this is because they are rapidly digested and easy to consume in large amounts, “not because they bypass our energy balance.”
Dr. Wang said, however, that reducing calories should not be the sole focus of obesity prevention programs. Studies show, for example, that sugary beverages are linked to an increased risk of diabetes and other chronic diseases, but their impact on body weight explains only half of the increased risk, Dr. Wang said.
“These foods mess up our insulin regulation system and affect other inflammatory pathways,” she said. “And that has nothing to do with how they affect body weight.”
Ms. Couric, who has two children, said that she became involved in making the film “as a mom and a concerned citizen,” and that her goal was to start a national dialogue about the quality of our food supply.
“This film doesn’t purport to have all the answers,” Ms. Couric said. “But this is a wake-up call that I hope will spur some solutions. This is not just about carrying a few extra pounds or looking better in your bathing suit. This is a national epidemic with huge societal ramifications.”

Wednesday, 27 August 2014

Trans Fat Leads To Weight Gain Even On Same Total Calories, Animal Study Shows


The "apple" body shape that increases the risk of diabetes and heart disease may be accelerated by eating trans fat such as partially hydrogenated vegetable oil, according to new animal research at Wake Forest University School of Medicine.

The "apple" body shape that increases the risk of diabetes and heart disease may be accelerated by eating trans fat such as partially hydrogenated vegetable oil, according to new animal research at Wake Forest University School of Medicine.
"Diets rich in trans fat cause a redistribution of fat tissue into the abdomen and lead to a higher body weight even when the total dietary calories are controlled," said Lawrence L. Rudel, Ph.D., professor of pathology and biochemistry and head of the Lipid Sciences Research Program.
"What it says is that trans fat is worse than anticipated," Rudel said. "I was surprised."
According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), consumption of saturated fat, trans fat, and dietary cholesterol raises low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or "bad" cholesterol, levels, which increases the risk of coronary artery disease.
Kylie Kavanagh, D.V.M., presented the findings today at the 66th annual Scientific Sessions of the American Diabetes Association in Washington, D.C. She said that over six years, male monkeys fed a western-style diet that contains trans fat had a 7.2 percent increase in body weight, compared to a 1.8 percent increase in monkeys that ate monounsaturated fats, such as olive oil.
All that extra weight went to the abdomen, and some other body fat was redistributed to the abdomen. Computed tomography (CT) scans showed that the monkeys on the diet containing trans fats had dramatically more abdominal fat than the monkeys on the monounsaturated fat. "We measured the volume of fat using CT," Kavanagh said. "They deposited 30 percent more fat in their abdomen."
The monkeys all were given the same amount of daily calories, with 35 percent of the calories coming from fat. The amount of calories they got should only have been enough to maintain their weight, not increase it, Rudel said. "We believed they couldn't get obese because we did not give them enough calories to get fat."
One group of monkeys got 8 percent of their calories from trans fat while the other group received those calories as monounsaturated fat. The researchers said that this amount of trans fat is comparable to people who eat a lot of fried food.
"We conclude that in equivalent diets, trans fatty acid consumption increases weight gain," said Kavanagh.
Over the entire course of the study, there was a small but significant difference in weight between the two groups. "In the world of diabetes, everybody knows that just 5 percent weight loss makes enormous difference," Kavanagh said. "This little difference was biologically quite significant."
Rudel said, "The study was specifically funded to look at the role of trans fatty acids in atherosclerosis."
He said that at the time he got a grant from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, there was not much evidence in the literature and no animal models that documented the hazards of trans fats, though there are data showing it was a risk factor for atherosclerosis.
Kavanagh said the six-year length of the study was equivalent to 20 years in people.
According to the FDA, trans fat is found in vegetable shortenings, some margarines, crackers, cookies, snack foods, and other foods made with or fried in partially hydrogenated oils. Unlike other fats, the majority of trans fat is formed when food manufacturers turn liquid oils into solid fats like shortening and hard margarine by adding hydrogen.
Since Jan. 1, the FDA has required the amount of trans fat to be listed in the nutrition facts panel on all foods. But the restaurant industry is exempt.
Other researchers on the American Diabetes Society report include Janice D. Wagner, Ph.D., D.V.M., John Jeffrey Carr, M.D., Kate Jones, B.S., Janet Sawyer, M.S., and Kathryn Kelly., B.S., all from Wake Forest University School of Medicine.

Monday, 25 August 2014

Alkaline Diet Proof: Scientific Evidence


The alkaline diet works. That is a fact. An irrefutable, scientific fact, as I am about to prove to you.
Even without the science I know it works. I’ve seen way too many results in my life, in my family’s life, in my friends lives, and in the lives of the thousands of people I’ve coached, taught or had random emails from after they’ve actioned what I teach on this site.
BUT, I know it’s important for people to see the science, read the facts and see the proof before they commit.
And with more and more celebrities seemingly adopting this approach to health, there is the risk it’s going to be chewed and spat out by Hollywood and the media.
So today I’m going to share my updated ‘Alkaline Diet Proof‘ catalogue with you. This is just a handful of the articles I’ve collected over the past 9 years (I’m a research geek from my academic days).

But before we start – some context and a very important distinction [Note: This is IMPORTANT]

Before I go into the specific research papers, I want to point out a few very important distinctions to make. A misunderstanding of these points (most critics of the alkaline diet make these mistakes and have these misunderstandings) leads to a complete misunderstanding of the alkaline diet, and worse, an impossible mountain to climb if you want to start living alkaline.
You’re Not Trying to Alkalise Your Body: confused now? Let me explain.
The purpose of the alkaline diet is not to try and increase the alkalinity of your blood, cells or any other part of your body. This is the chief ‘told you so’ point of the detractors of the alkaline diet. They say ‘there’s no point doing the alkaline diet because the body has mechanisms to ensure you NEVER deviate from pH 7.365′. I agree – that’s exactly the point.
The purpose of the alkaline diet is to celebrate that fact and provide the body with all the tools it needs to effortlessly maintain that pH 7.365. The Standard American (Western) Diet and modern life in general bombards our body with acids all day long. The damage that these acidic substances (such as sugar) cause is only beaten by the damage caused by the body doing whatever it takes to buffer these acids and maintain the pH 7.365.
The alkaline diet is designed to limit these acidic substances and fuel your body with an abundance of nutrient-dense, life-giving foods that make your thrive. It’s NOT designed to try and increase the alkalinity of your body, rather to support the body’s own delicate balance.
This is the second important point: the alkaline diet JUST MAKES SENSE! Try not to get too caught up in the science of it all. The scientific proof and scientific background of the alkaline diet is there, that’s without question – but don’t fall into the trap of not seeing the wood for the trees!
The alkaline diet is really simple and common sense. When people (friends, family, doctors, other websites, troublemakers(!) and the like) try to question the alkaline approach, they usually go headfirst into a bunch of psudoscience, fuzzy logic and chemistry (largely based upon the incorrect assumption outlined above).
But let’s take a step back for a minute and not call it the alkaline diet. Let’s just call it your new healthy living idea.
This new healthy living idea includes getting lots of:
  • Fresh foods
  • Vegetables
  • Low sugar fruits
  • Nuts, seeds and pulses
  • Salads
  • Foods that are as close to nature (unrefined) as possible
  • Filtered/purified water
  • Exercise
  • Fresh air
  • Relaxation
  • Plus things like oily fish, dairy, a little lean meat and treats in moderation
While cutting back on, or getting rid of:
  • Sugar
  • Fast foods
  • Junk foods and refined foods
  • Excessive animal protein & dairy
  • Crap like sweets, confectionary, chocolate, trans-fats, chips, pizzas etc.
  • White foods (white bread, white pasta etc)
  • Caffeine
  • Soft drinks, alcohol
  • Drugs
  • Stress & negative emotions
This is pretty much the alkaline diet in a nutshell – but find me a doctor who would not agree that this is a great, healthy way to live? They’d be crazy to say that this was unhealthy.
The final point to make is this: conducting human health studies is very expensive and incredibly difficult. I doubt that there will ever be a long-term, human study specifically focused on the alkaline diet in general as an approach to health. However, many smaller but more specific studies have been undertaken to relate the alkaline diet to specific outcomes, conditions and benefits, and this is what you’ll see below.
Alkalinity Reduces Arthritis Pain
Alkaline foods and supplementation of alkaline minerals can help with improved function and decreased pain in arthritis sufferers
Article Title: Alkaline Mineral Supplementation Decreases Pain in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: A Pilot Study
Article Published: The Open Nutrition Journal, 2008, 2, 100-105
Authors: Regina Maria Cseuz, Istvan Barna, Tamas Bender and Jürgen Vormann
Link to Original Article
“The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the efficacy of an alkaline mineral supplement as a means of suppressing disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients…This study suggests that an alkaline supplement may improve function and pain in rheumatoid arthritis and may represent an easy and safe addition to the usual treatment of RA patients.”
Alkaline Diet Supports Kidney Health
Chronic acidosis is common among those with kidney disease and studies show that alkaline supplementation and diet can slow the progression of the disease
Article Title: Does correction of metabolic acidosis slow chronic kidney disease progression?
Article Published: Current Opinion in Nephrology & Hypertension: March 2013 – Volume 22 – Issue 2 – p 193–197
Authors: Goraya, Nimrit; Wesson, Donald E
“Recent studies support that dietary acid reduction with oral sodium based alkali or base-inducing food types add kidney protection to that provided by current kidney-protective interventions. Recent studies suggest that metabolic acidosis mediates nephropathy progression, and its treatment with the comparatively inexpensive and well tolerated intervention of dietary acid reduction holds promise to be an additional kidney-protective strategy in CKD management.
An Acidic Diet Leads to Increased Risk of Obesity, Cardiovascular Disease, Diabetes, Hypertension and Chronic Kidney Failure:
Modern diet is devoid of alkalinity and the compounding effect of chronic acidosis leads to a host of problems in the body.
Article Title: Diet-induced metabolic acidosis
Article Published:Clinical Nutrition, Volume 30, Issue 4, August 2011, Pages 416–421
Authors: María M. Adeva, Gema Souto
“The modern Western-type diet is deficient in fruits and vegetables and contains excessive animal products, generating the accumulation of non-metabolizable anions and a lifespan state of overlooked metabolic acidosis, whose magnitude increases progressively with aging due to the physiological decline in kidney function.
In response to this state of diet-derived metabolic acidosis, the kidney implements compensating mechanisms aimed to restore the acid-base balance, such as the removal of the non-metabolizable anions, the conservation of citrate, and the enhancement of kidney ammoniagenesis and urinary excretion of ammonium ions. These adaptive processes lower the urine pH and induce an extensive change in urine composition, including hypocitraturia, hypercalciuria, and nitrogen and phosphate wasting.
Even a very mild degree of metabolic acidosis induces skeletal muscle resistance…and dietary acid load may be an important variable in predicting the metabolic abnormalities and the cardiovascular risk of the general population, the overweight and obese persons, and other patient populations including diabetes and chronic kidney failure.
High dietary acid load is more likely to result in diabetes and systemic hypertension and may increase the cardiovascular risk. Results of recent observational studies confirm an association between insulin resistance and metabolic acidosis markers, including low serum bicarbonate, high serum anion gap, hypocitraturia, and low urine pH.
Alkaline Diet Can Prevent and Stop Progression of Type 2 Diabetes:
An adoption of the “HFV” diet that replicates the alkaline diet (lots of vegetables, fresh foods and no red meat, processed foods, sugar etc) has been proven to slow and turn around type-2 diabetes.
Article Title: Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes by Dietary Patterns: A Systematic Review of Prospective Studies and Meta-Analysis
Article Published: Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders. December 2010, 8(6): 471-476. doi:10.1089/met.2010.0009
Authors: Katherine Esposito, Christina-Maria Kastorini, Demosthenes B. Panagiotakos, and Dario Giugliano.
“Dietary patterns characterized by high consumption of fruit and vegetables, whole grains, fish, and poultry, and by decreased consumption of red meat, processed foods, sugar-sweetened beverages, and starchy foods may retard the progression of type 2 diabetes. Healthy diets can help people to live more years without type 2 diabetes.”
Low Alkaline, High Acidic Diet Leads to High Risk of Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes
High acidic, low alkaline diet leads to cortisol production, known to dramatically increase the risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes.
Article Title: Acid–base balance may influence risk for insulin resistance syndrome by modulating cortisol output
Article Published: Medical Hypotheses Volume 64, Issue 2, 2005, Pages 380–384
Authors: Mark F. McCarty
“Recent evidence suggests that the moderate metabolic acidosis associated with a protein-rich diet low in organic potassium salts – quantifiable by net acid output in daily urine – can likewise evoke a modest increase in cortisol production. Since cortisol promotes development of visceral obesity, and has a direct negative impact on insulin function throughout the body, even a modest sustained up-regulation of cortisol production may have the potential to increase risk for insulin resistance syndrome and type 2 diabetes. This thesis appears to be consistent with previous epidemiological reports correlating high potassium consumption, or a high intake of fruits and vegetables, with reduced risk for diabetes and coronary disease.”
Alkaline Diet Helps with Kidney Issues:
An acidic diet can be a contributor to renal (kidney) problems, and dietetic intervention with alkaline foods and substances can be advantageous.
Article Title: ACID-BASE IN RENAL FAILURE: Influence of Diet on Acid-Base Balance
Article Published: Seminars in Dialysis Volume 13, Issue 4, pages 221–226, July–August 2000
Authors: Thomas Remer
“It is well established that diet and certain food components have a clear impact on acid-base balance. Because urine pH is a relevant risk factor in most types of urinary stone disease, a dietetic manipulation of renal hydrogen ion excretion would be advantageous for a number of individuals at risk. Also patients with poorly functioning kidneys – in whom metabolic acidosis is a common manifestation of an impaired renal capacity to excrete the daily acid produced – could benefit from specific dietetic means that reduce daily acid load.”
Alkaline Water Reduces Acid Reflux
Alkaline Water helps to relieve and remove acid reflux and provides good acid-buffering capacity.
Article Title: Potential Benefits of pH 8.8 Alkaline Drinking Water as an Adjunct in the Treatment of Reflux Disease
Article Published: Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2012 Jul;121(7):431-4.
Authors: Jamie A. Koufman, MD; Nikki Johnston, PhD
“In addition, human pepsin remains stable at pH 7.4 and may be reactivated by hydrogen ions from any source. Thus, most tap and bottled waters (typically pH 6.7 to 7.4) would not be expected to affect pepsin stability. The purposes of these in vitro studies were to investigate whether artesian well water containing natural bicarbonate (pH 8.8) might irreversibly denature (inactivate) human pepsin, and to establish its potential acid-buffering capacity.
The pH 8.8 alkaline water irreversibly inactivated human pepsin (in vitro), and its hydrochloric acid-buffering capacity far exceeded that of the conventional-pH waters. Unlike conventional drinking water, pH 8.8 alkaline water instantly denatures pepsin, rendering it permanently inactive. In addition, it has good acid-buffering capacity. Thus, the consumption of alkaline water may have therapeutic benefits for patients with reflux disease.
Alkaline Diet Helps with Gout/Hyperuricemia
An alkaline diet leads to a higher alkaline urine, providing an effective treatment of Hyperuricemia / Gout – alkalising helps remove uric acid from the body.
Article Title: Effect of urine pH changed by dietary intervention on uric acid clearance mechanism of pH-dependent excretion of urinary uric acid
Article Published: Nutrition Journal 2012, 11:39
Authors: Aya Kanbara, Yoshisuke Miura, Hideyuki Hyogo, Kazuaki Chayama and Issei Seyama
“Within the framework of the Japanese government’s health promotion program, we made recipes which consisted of protein-rich and less vegetable-fruit food materials for H+ load (acidic diet) and others composed of less protein and more vegetable-fruit rich food materials (alkaline diet). Among the five factors which are associated with calculating clearances for both uric acid and creatinine, we identified a conspicuous difference between acidic and alkaline diets in the uric acid concentration in serum as well as in urine; uric acid in the serum was higher in the acidic group than in the alkaline group, while uric acid in the urine in the acidic group was lower than that in the alkaline group. These changes of uric acid in acidic urine and in serum were reflected in the reduction of its clearance. From these observations, it is considered that uric acid may be reabsorbed more actively in acidic urine than in alkaline urine.
We conclude that alkalization of urine by eating nutritionally well-designed alkaline prone food is effective for removing uric acid from the body.”
Alkaline Foods Support Bone Health
A diet rich in alkaline forming foods supports bone health and has been proven by numerous human studies.
Article Title: The Acid-Base Hypothesis: Diet and Bone in the Framingham Osteoporosis Study
Article Published: European Journal of Nutrition October 2001, Volume 40, Issue 5, pp 231-237
Authors: Katherine L. Tucker, Marian T. Hannan, Douglas P. Kiel
“There continues to be considerable debate about the role of acid vs. basic components of the diet on the long-term status of bone mineral density. The theory that an acidic environment leads to progressive bone loss has long been proposed, and has been supported by numerous short-term human studies. We examined the effect of components in the diet thought to have basic (alkaline) effects and acid effects on bone mineral density…(and) these results support the role of base-forming foods and nutrients in bone health.”
Alkaline Diet Supports Bone Health
An overly acidic diet leads to the constant requirement for buffering of these acids in the body, which leads to the weakening of the bones as bone resorption takes place, with the calcium being lost from the bones to help buffer these acids. Even a slight decrease in metabolic acidosis leads to bone loss and risk of fracture
Article Title: Acid-base imbalance and the skeleton
Article Published: European Journal of Nutrition. 2001 Oct;40(5):238-44.
Authors: Bushinsky DA.
“Humans generally consume a diet that generates metabolic acids leading to a reduction in the concentration of systemic bicarbonate and a fall in pH. In vitro experiments indicate that this metabolic acidosis causes a release of calcium from bone that initially is simply due to physicochemical dissolution of the mineral. On a more chronic basis metabolic acidosis alters bone cell function; there is an increase in osteoclastic bone resorption and a decrease in osteoblastic bone formation…As we age we are less able to excrete these metabolic acids due to the normal decline in renal function. We hypothesize that a slight, but significant, metabolic acidosis leads to greater loss of bone mineral and increase potential to fracture.”
Alkaline Water Prevents Bone Loss, Supports Bone Strength
Alkaline water supports bone strength by eliminating bone resorption (weakening) and is especially more powerful than acidic water, even if the acidic water contains calcium. Thus supporting the hypothesis that acidic substances don’t necessarily promote bone health even if they contain calcium (i.e. milk).
Article Title: Alkaline mineral water lowers bone resorption even in calcium sufficiency: alkaline mineral water and bone metabolism
Article Published: Bone. 2009 Jan;44(1):120-4. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2008.09.007. Epub 2008 Sep 26.
Authors: Wynn E, Krieg MA, Aeschlimann JM, Burckhardt P.
“Dietary acid charge enhances bone loss. Bicarbonate or alkali diet decreases bone resorption in humans. We compared the effect of an alkaline mineral water, rich in bicarbonate, with that of an acid one, rich in calcium only, on bone markers, in young women with a normal calcium intake….In calcium sufficiency, the acid calcium-rich water had no effect on bone resorption, while the alkaline water rich in bicarbonate led to a significant decrease of PTH and of S-CTX.”
Alkaline Water Prevents Bone Loss, Supports Bone Strength
Alkaline water and diet inhibit bone resporption (bone weakening). Alkaline water is specifically show in this research to outperform acidic water.
Article Title: The Effect of the Alkali Load of Mineral Water on Bone Metabolism: Interventional Studies
Article Published: Journal of Nutrition. February 2008 vol. 138 no. 2 435S-437S
Authors: Peter Burckhardt
“Alkali supplements decrease bone resorption and increase bone mineral density. Alkali diets also lower bone resorption. Mineral waters alone could have such an effect. In several subsequent studies in humans, bicarbonate-rich alkali mineral waters with low potential renal acid load values were shown to decrease bone resorption markers and even parathyroid hormone levels. This effect seems to be stronger than that of acidic calcium-rich mineral waters.
These studies have shown that alkali, bicarbonate-rich mineral waters, especially waters with a strongly negative PRAL value, decrease bone resorption, even when compared with mineral waters with a higher calcium content.”
Alkaline Foods, Minerals DO Effect Our Acid/Alkaline Balance
Proof that consuming alkaline minerals DOES have an effect on acid-base chemistry – the alkaline diet DOES have an impact on our health!
Article Title: Effect of a supplement rich in alkaline minerals on acid-base balance in humans
Article Published: Nutrition Journal 2009, 8:23
Authors: Daniel König, Klaus Muser, Hans-Hermann Dickhuth, Aloys Berg and Peter Deibert
“Western diets are considered acidogenic due to the high dietary acid load and a low intake of base-forming dietary minerals such as potassium, magnesium or calcium. In the present study we investigated the effect of a multimineral supplement (MMS) rich in alkaline minerals on acute and chronic regulation of acid-base balance with the pH of blood, urine and saliva as potential
surrogate markers.
Our results suggest that the ingestion of a multimineral supplement is associated with both a significant increase in blood and urinary pH.”
Alkaline Diet Reduces Pain
An acidic diet can increase the liklihood and intensity of pain, but a more alkaline diet can reduce this pain, specifically chronic back pain in this case.
Article Title: Supplementation with alkaline minerals reduces symptoms in patients with chronic low back pain
Article Published: Volume 15, Issues 2–3, 2001, Pages 179–183
Authors: Jürgen Vormann, Michael Worlitschek, Thomas Goedecke, Burton Silver
“It was tested whether a supplementation with alkaline minerals would influence symptoms in patients with low back pain symptoms. In 76 out of 82 patients a reduction in ARS (Arhus low back pain rating scale) was achieved by the supplementation. Total blood buffering capacity was significantly increased … and also blood pH rose … The results show that a disturbed acid-base balance may contribute to the symptoms of low back pain. The simple and safe addition of an alkaline multimineral preparate was able to reduce the pain symptoms in these patients with chronic low back pain.
Alkaline Diet Improves Bone Strength, Acid Diet Leads to Bone Mineral Loss
An acidic diet leads to weaker bones, but consuming alkaline minerals (sodium bicarbonate) and increasing the alkali content of the diet can slow bone loss and lead to stronger bones in older adults
Article Title: Treatment with Potassium Bicarbonate Lowers Calcium Excretion and Bone Resorption in Older Men and Women
Article Published: The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismJanuary 1, 2009 vol. 94 no. 196-102
Authors: Bess Dawson-Hughes, Susan S. Harris, Nancy J. Palermo, Carmen Castaneda-Sceppa,Helen M. Rasmussen and Gerard E. Dallal
“Bicarbonate has been implicated in bone health in older subjects on acid-producing diets in short-term studies. Bicarbonate…had a favorable effect on bone resorption and calcium excretion. This suggests that increasing the alkali content of the diet may attenuate bone loss in healthy older adults.
Alkaline Diet Supports Lean Muscle & Reduces Muscle Loss
An acidic diet creates metabolic acidosis, leading to muscle wasting and a reduction in lean muscle tissue. This can be corrected with a high intake of foods containing alkaline minerals such as potassium (alkaline foods).
Article Title: Alkaline diets favor lean tissue mass in older adults
Article Published: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition March 2008 vol. 87 no. 3 662-665
Authors: Bess Dawson-Hughes, Susan S Harris, and Lisa Ceglia
“Metabolic acidosis promotes muscle wasting, and the net acid load from diets that are rich in net acid–producing protein and cereal grains relative to their content of net alkali–producing fruit and vegetables may therefore contribute to a reduction in lean tissue mass in older adults. Higher intake of foods rich in potassium, such as fruit and vegetables, may favor the preservation of muscle mass in older men and women.”
Proof: The Alkaline Diet Works!
An overly-acidic diet (dietary-induced acidosis) is real, has a devestating effect and should be corrected with diet (alkaline).
Article Title: Diet-induced acidosis: is it real and clinically relevant?
Article Published: British Journal of Nutrition. 2010 Apr;103(8):1185-94. doi: 10.1017/S0007114509993047. Epub 2009 Dec 15.
Authors: Pizzorno, Frassetta and Katzinger
“The available research makes a compelling case that diet-induced acidosis, not diet-induced acidaemia, is a real phenomenon, and has a significant, clinical, long-term pathophysiological effect that should be recognised and potentially counterbalanced by dietary means.”
Alkaline Minerals Increase Acid Buffering Capacity & Can Improve Sports Performance
Consuming Alkaline Minerals (Sodium Bicarbonate) Increases the Buffering Capacity of the Body & Provides Sports Performance Enhancement
Article Title: Sodium bicarbonate improves swimming performance.
Article Published: Int Journal Sports Medicine. 2008 Jun;29(6):519-23. Epub 2007 Nov 14.
Authors: Lindh AM, Peyrebrune MC, Ingham SA, Bailey DM, Folland JP.
“Sodium bicarbonate ingestion has been shown to improve performance in single-bout, high intensity events, probably due to an increase in buffering capacity, but its influence on single-bout swimming performance has not been investigated. The effects of sodium bicarbonate supplementation on 200 m freestyle swimming performance were investigated in elite male competitors…It was concluded that SB supplementation can improve 200 m freestyle performance time in elite male competitors, most likely by increasing buffering capacity.”
This is just a handful of the research that exists out there. It is available in abundance. Of course, I will keep adding to this section of my site each few weeks, but for now, this is certainly enough to be going on to prove to yourself and others that the alkaline diet is REAL, it WORKS and it’s PROVEN to be beneficial to human health!